Vikinger namen

Arashura / 21.12.2017

vikinger namen

in der Wikingerzeit. Wikinger Namen oder Rufnamen. Wo nach erhielt ein neugeborenes nach der Niederkunft seinen Namen? Viking Quest Wikinger Spiel. Erstelle eindeutige Namen für Spiele, Youtube-Kanäle, Instagram-Accounts, von coole Fonts, Briefe, Symbole und Tags im Zusammenhang mit Vikinger. Beliebte nordische Vornamen. Die beliebtesten Jungennamen und Mädchennamen, die aus der nordischen Sprache stammen.

This was the name of a Norse goddess of healing and medicine. The name was brought to public attention by the singer Elvis Presley , whose name came from his father's middle name.

In Norse mythology Embla and her husband Ask were the first humans. They were created by three of the gods from two trees. This was also the name of several early kings of Sweden, Denmark and Norway.

It was first used in the 18th century. It also coincides with the Latin word for "heather". This was the name of kings of Sweden, Denmark and Norway.

King Erik IX of Sweden 12th century is the patron saint of that country. It also coincides with the word for "heather" in some languages.

This was the name of the wife of Jarl in Norse legend. This was the name of the goddess of love, beauty, war and death in Norse mythology.

Some scholars connect her with the goddess Frigg. This was the name of a Norse god. He may have originally been called Yngvi , with the name Freyr being his title.

Freyr presided over fertility, sunlight and rain, and was the husband of the frost giantess Gerd. With his twin sister Freya and father Njord he was one of the group of deities called the Vanir.

A famous bearer was Mexican painter Frida Kahlo In Norse mythology she was the goddess of the earth, air and fertility, and the wife of Odin.

Some scholars believe that she and the goddess Freya share a common origin. Tolkien borrowed the name for a wizard in his novels 'The Hobbit' and 'The Lord of the Rings' This form is only attested in the Old Norse period belonging to a horse.

In Norse myth Gerd was a fertility goddess, a frost giantess who was the wife of Freyr. She also aided Thor in his fight against the giant Geirrod.

This is the name of a seeress in Norse mythology. In Norse legend Gudrun was the wife of Sigurd. After his death she married Atli, but when he murdered her brothers, she killed her sons by him, fed him their hearts, and then slew him.

In Norse legend Gunnar was the husband of Brynhildr. He had his brother-in-law Sigurd murdered based on his wife's false accusations that Sigurd had taken her virginity.

This was the name of a valkyrie in Norse legend. Lack of organised naval opposition throughout Western Europe allowed Viking ships to travel freely, raiding or trading as opportunity permitted.

The decline in the profitability of old trade routes could also have played a role. Trade between western Europe and the rest of Eurasia suffered a severe blow when the Roman Empire fell in the 5th century.

Raids in Europe, including raids and settlements from Scandinavia, were not unprecedented and had occurred long before the Vikings arrived.

The Jutes invaded the British Isles three centuries earlier, pouring out from Jutland during the Age of Migrations , before the Danes settled there.

The Saxons and the Angles did the same, embarking from mainland Europe. The Viking raids were, however, the first to be documented in writing by eyewitnesses, and they were much larger in scale and frequency than in previous times.

Vikings themselves were expanding; although their motives are unclear, historians believe that scarce resources were a factor.

The "Highway of Slaves" was a term used to describe a route that the Vikings found to have a direct pathway from Scandinavia to Constantinople and Baghdad while traveling on the Baltic Sea.

With the advancements of their ships during the ninth century, the Vikings were able to sail to Russia and some northern parts of Europe.

Jomsburg , was a semi-legendary Viking stronghold at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea medieval Wendland , modern Pomerania , that existed between the s and Its inhabitants were known as Jomsvikings.

Jomsborg's exact location, or its existence, has not yet been established, though it is often maintained that Jomsborg was somewhere on the islands of the Oder estuary.

During the Viking Age, Scandinavian men and women travelled to many parts of Europe and beyond, in a cultural diaspora that left its traces from Newfoundland to Byzantium.

This period of energetic activity also had a pronounced effect in the Scandinavian homelands, which were subject to a variety of new influences.

By the late 11th century, royal dynasties legitimised by the Catholic Church which had had little influence in Scandinavia years earlier were asserting their power with increasing authority and ambition, and the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden had taken shape.

Towns appeared that functioned as secular and ecclesiastical administrative centres and market sites, and monetary economies began to emerge based on English and German models.

Foreign churchmen and native elites were energetic in furthering the interests of Christianity, which was now no longer operating only on a missionary footing, and old ideologies and lifestyles were transforming.

By , the first archbishopric was founded in Scandinavia, at Lund , Scania, then part of Denmark. The assimilation of the nascent Scandinavian kingdoms into the cultural mainstream of European Christendom altered the aspirations of Scandinavian rulers and of Scandinavians able to travel overseas, and changed their relations with their neighbours.

One of the primary sources of profit for the Vikings had been slave-taking. The medieval Church held that Christians should not own fellow Christians as slaves, so chattel slavery diminished as a practice throughout northern Europe.

This took much of the economic incentive out of raiding, though sporadic slaving activity continued into the 11th century.

Scandinavian predation in Christian lands around the North and Irish Seas diminished markedly. The kings of Norway continued to assert power in parts of northern Britain and Ireland, and raids continued into the 12th century, but the military ambitions of Scandinavian rulers were now directed toward new paths.

In , Sigurd I of Norway sailed for the eastern Mediterranean with Norwegian crusaders to fight for the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem , and Danes and Swedes participated energetically in the Baltic Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries.

A variety of sources illuminate the culture, activities, and beliefs of the Vikings. Although they were generally a non-literate culture that produced no literary legacy, they had an alphabet and described themselves and their world on runestones.

Most contemporary literary and written sources on the Vikings come from other cultures that were in contact with them. The most important primary sources on the Vikings are contemporary texts from Scandinavia and regions where the Vikings were active.

Most contemporary documentary sources consist of texts written in Christian and Islamic communities outside Scandinavia, often by authors who had been negatively affected by Viking activity.

Later writings on the Vikings and the Viking Age can also be important for understanding them and their culture, although they need to be treated cautiously.

After the consolidation of the church and the assimilation of Scandinavia and its colonies into the mainstream of medieval Christian culture in the 11th and 12th centuries, native written sources begin to appear, in Latin and Old Norse.

In the Viking colony of Iceland, an extraordinary vernacular literature blossomed in the 12th through 14th centuries, and many traditions connected with the Viking Age were written down for the first time in the Icelandic sagas.

A literal interpretation of these medieval prose narratives about the Vikings and the Scandinavian past is doubtful, but many specific elements remain worthy of consideration, such as the great quantity of skaldic poetry attributed to court poets of the 10th and 11th centuries, the exposed family trees, the self images, the ethical values, all included in these literary writings.

Indirectly, the Vikings have also left a window open to their language, culture and activities, through many Old Norse place names and words, found in their former sphere of influence.

Viking influence is also evident in concepts like the present-day parliamentary body of the Tynwald on the Isle of Man.

Common words in everyday English language, like some of the weekdays Thursday means Thor's day , axle , crook , raft , knife , plough , leather , window , berserk , bylaw , thorp , skerry , husband , heathen , Hell , Norman and ransack stem from the Old Norse of the Vikings and give us an opportunity to understand their interactions with the people and cultures of the British Isles.

Some modern words and names only emerge and contribute to our understanding after a more intense research of linguistic sources from medieval or later records, such as York Horse Bay , Swansea Sveinn 's Isle or some of the place names in Northern France like Tocqueville Toki's farm.

Linguistic and etymological studies continue to provide a vital source of information on the Viking culture, their social structure and history and how they interacted with the people and cultures they met, traded, attacked or lived with in overseas settlements.

It has been speculated that the reason was the great differences between the two languages, combined with the Rus' Vikings more peaceful businesses in these areas and the fact that they were outnumbered.

The Norse named some of the rapids on the Dnieper , but this can hardly be seen from the modern names. A consequence of the available written sources, which may have coloured how the Viking age is perceived as a historical period, is that much more is known of the Vikings' activities in western Europe than in the East.

One reason is that the cultures of north-eastern Europe at the time were non-literate, and did not produce a legacy of literature.

Another is that the vast majority of written sources on Scandinavia in the Viking Age come from Iceland, a nation originally settled by Norwegian colonists.

As a result, there is much more material from the Viking Age about Norway than Sweden, which apart from many runic inscriptions, has almost no written sources from the early Middle Ages.

The Norse of the Viking Age could read and write and used a non-standardised alphabet, called runor , built upon sound values.

While there are few remains of runic writing on paper from the Viking era, thousands of stones with runic inscriptions have been found where Vikings lived.

They are usually in memory of the dead, though not necessarily placed at graves. The use of runor survived into the 15th century, used in parallel with the Latin alphabet.

The majority of runic inscriptions from the Viking period are found in Sweden and date from the 11th century. The oldest stone with runic inscriptions was found in Norway and dates to the 4th century, suggesting that runic inscriptions pre-date the Viking period.

Many runestones in Scandinavia record the names of participants in Viking expeditions, such as the Kjula runestone that tells of extensive warfare in Western Europe and the Turinge Runestone , which tells of a war band in Eastern Europe.

Other runestones mention men who died on Viking expeditions. Among them are around 25 Ingvar runestones in the Mälardalen district of Sweden, erected to commemorate members of a disastrous expedition into present-day Russia in the early 11th century.

Runestones are important sources in the study of Norse society and early medieval Scandinavia, not only of the Viking segment of the population. The Jelling stones date from between and The older, smaller stone was raised by King Gorm the Old , the last pagan king of Denmark, as a memorial honouring Queen Thyre.

It has three sides: Runestones attest to voyages to locations such as Bath , [95] Greece, [96] Khwaresm , [97] Jerusalem , [98] Italy as Langobardland , [99] Serkland i.

Viking Age inscriptions have also been discovered on the Manx runestones on the Isle of Man. The burial practices of the Vikings were quite varied, from dug graves in the ground, to tumuli , sometimes including so-called ship burials.

According to written sources, most of the funerals took place at sea. The funerals involved either burial or cremation , depending on local customs.

In the area that is now Sweden, cremations were predominant; in Denmark burial was more common; and in Norway both were common.

There have been several archaeological finds of Viking ships of all sizes, providing knowledge of the craftsmanship that went into building them.

There were many types of Viking ships, built for various uses; the best-known type is probably the longship. The longship had a long, narrow hull and shallow draught to facilitate landings and troop deployments in shallow water.

Longships were used extensively by the Leidang , the Scandinavian defence fleets. The longship allowed the Norse to go Viking , which might explain why this type of ship has become almost synonymous with the concept of Vikings.

The Vikings built many unique types of watercraft, often used for more peaceful tasks. The knarr was a dedicated merchant vessel designed to carry cargo in bulk.

It had a broader hull, deeper draught, and a small number of oars used primarily to manoeuvre in harbours and similar situations.

One Viking innovation was the ' beitass ', a spar mounted to the sail that allowed their ships to sail effectively against the wind.

Ships were an integral part of the Viking culture. They facilitated everyday transportation across seas and waterways, exploration of new lands, raids, conquests, and trade with neighbouring cultures.

They also held a major religious importance. People with high status were sometimes buried in a ship along with animal sacrifices, weapons, provisions and other items, as evidenced by the buried vessels at Gokstad and Oseberg in Norway [] and the excavated ship burial at Ladby in Denmark.

Ship burials were also practised by Vikings abroad, as evidenced by the excavations of the Salme ships on the Estonian island of Saaremaa.

Well-preserved remains of five Viking ships were excavated from Roskilde Fjord in the late s, representing both the longship and the knarr. The ships were scuttled there in the 11th century to block a navigation channel and thus protect Roskilde , then the Danish capital, from seaborne assault.

The remains of these ships are on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. The Viking society was divided into the three socio-economic classes: Thralls, Karls and Jarls.

Archaeology has confirmed this social structure. Thralls were the lowest ranking class and were slaves. Slaves comprised as much as a quarter of the population.

Thralls were servants and workers in the farms and larger households of the Karls and Jarls, and they were used for constructing fortifications, ramps, canals, mounds, roads and similar hard work projects.

According to the Rigsthula, Thralls were despised and looked down upon. New thralls were supplied by either the sons and daughters of thralls or they were captured abroad.

The Vikings often deliberately captured many people on their raids in Europe, to enslave them as thralls. The thralls were then brought back home to Scandinavia by boat, used on location or in newer settlements to build needed structures, or sold, often to the Arabs in exchange for silver.

Karls were free peasants. They owned farms, land and cattle and engaged in daily chores like ploughing the fields, milking the cattle, building houses and wagons, but used thralls to make ends meet.

Other names for Karls were 'bonde' or simply free men. The Jarls were the aristocracy of the Viking society. They were wealthy and owned large estates with huge longhouses, horses and many thralls.

The thralls did most of the daily chores, while the Jarls did administration, politics, hunting, sports, visited other Jarls or were abroad on expeditions.

When a Jarl died and was buried, his household thralls were sometimes sacrificially killed and buried next to him, as many excavations have revealed.

In daily life, there were many intermediate positions in the overall social structure and it is believed that there must have been some social mobility.

These details are unclear, but titles and positions like hauldr , thegn , landmand , show mobility between the Karls and the Jarls.

Members of the latter were referred to as drenge , one of the words for warrior. There were also official communities within towns and villages, the overall defence, religion, the legal system and the Things.

Such a woman was referred to as Baugrygr , and she exercised all the rights afforded to the head of a family clan — such as the right to demand and receive fines for the slaughter of a family member — until she married, by which her rights were transferred to her new husband.

A married woman could divorce her husband and remarry. These liberties gradually disappeared after the introduction of Christianity, and from the late 13th-century, they are no longer mentioned.

The three classes were easily recognisable by their appearances. Men and women of the Jarls were well groomed with neat hairstyles and expressed their wealth and status by wearing expensive clothes often silk and well crafted jewellery like brooches , belt buckles, necklaces and arm rings.

Almost all of the jewellery was crafted in specific designs unique to the Norse see Viking art. Finger rings were seldom used and earrings were not used at all, as they were seen as a Slavic phenomenon.

Most Karls expressed similar tastes and hygiene, but in a more relaxed and inexpensive way. The sagas tell about the diet and cuisine of the Vikings, [] but first hand evidence, like cesspits , kitchen middens and garbage dumps have proved to be of great value and importance.

Undigested remains of plants from cesspits at Coppergate in York have provided much information in this respect. Overall, archaeo-botanical investigations have been undertaken increasingly in recent decades, as a collaboration between archaeologists and palaeoethno-botanists.

This new approach sheds light on the agricultural and horticultural practices of the Vikings and their cuisine. The combined information from various sources suggests a diverse cuisine and ingredients.

Meat products of all kinds, such as cured , smoked and whey -preserved meat, [] sausages, and boiled or fried fresh meat cuts, were prepared and consumed.

Certain livestock were typical and unique to the Vikings, including the Icelandic horse , Icelandic cattle , a plethora of sheep breeds, [] the Danish hen and the Danish goose.

Most of the beef and horse leg bones were found split lengthways, to extract the marrow. The mutton and swine were cut into leg and shoulder joints and chops.

The frequent remains of pig skull and foot bones found on house floors indicate that brawn and trotters were also popular.

Hens were kept for both their meat and eggs, and the bones of game birds such as black grouse , golden plover , wild ducks, and geese have also been found.

Seafood was important, in some places even more so than meat. Whales and walrus were hunted for food in Norway and the north-western parts of the North Atlantic region, and seals were hunted nearly everywhere.

Oysters , mussels and shrimps were eaten in large quantities and cod and salmon were popular fish. In the southern regions, herring was also important.

Milk and buttermilk were popular, both as cooking ingredients and drinks, but were not always available, even at farms.

Food was often salted and enhanced with spices, some of which were imported like black pepper , while others were cultivated in herb gardens or harvested in the wild.

Home grown spices included caraway , mustard and horseradish as evidenced from the Oseberg ship burial [] or dill , coriander , and wild celery , as found in cesspits at Coppergate in York.

Thyme , juniper berry , sweet gale , yarrow , rue and peppercress were also used and cultivated in herb gardens. Vikings collected and ate fruits, berries and nuts.

Apple wild crab apples , plums and cherries were part of the diet, [] as were rose hips and raspberry , wild strawberry , blackberry , elderberry , rowan , hawthorn and various wild berries, specific to the locations.

The shells were used for dyeing, and it is assumed that the nuts were consumed. The invention and introduction of the mouldboard plough revolutionised agriculture in Scandinavia in the early Viking Age and made it possible to farm even poor soils.

In Ribe , grains of rye , barley , oat and wheat dated to the 8th century have been found and examined, and are believed to have been cultivated locally.

Remains of bread from primarily Birka in Sweden were made of barley and wheat. It is unclear if the Norse leavened their breads, but their ovens and baking utensils suggest that they did.

This suggests a much higher actual percentage, as linen is poorly preserved compared to wool for example. The quality of food for common people was not always particularly high.

The research at Coppergate shows that the Vikings in York made bread from whole meal flour — probably both wheat and rye — but with the seeds of cornfield weeds included.

Corncockle Agrostemma , would have made the bread dark-coloured, but the seeds are poisonous, and people who ate the bread might have become ill.

Seeds of carrots, parsnip , and brassicas were also discovered, but they were poor specimens and tend to come from white carrots and bitter tasting cabbages.

The effects of this can be seen on skeletal remains of that period. Sports were widely practised and encouraged by the Vikings. This included spear and stone throwing, building and testing physical strength through wrestling see glima , fist fighting , and stone lifting.

In areas with mountains, mountain climbing was practised as a sport. Agility and balance were built and tested by running and jumping for sport, and there is mention of a sport that involved jumping from oar to oar on the outside of a ship's railing as it was being rowed.

Swimming was a popular sport and Snorri Sturluson describes three types: Children often participated in some of the sport disciplines and women have also been mentioned as swimmers, although it is unclear if they took part in competition.

King Olaf Tryggvason was hailed as a master of both mountain climbing and oar-jumping, and was said to have excelled in the art of knife juggling as well.

Skiing and ice skating were the primary winter sports of the Vikings, although skiing was also used as everyday means of transport in winter and in the colder regions of the north.

Horse fighting was practised for sport, although the rules are unclear. It appears to have involved two stallions pitted against each other, within smell and sight of fenced-off mares.

Whatever the rules were, the fights often resulted in the death of one of the stallions. Icelandic sources refer to the sport of knattleik.

A ball game akin to hockey , knattleik involved a bat and a small hard ball and was usually played on a smooth field of ice.

The rules are unclear, but it was popular with both adults and children, even though it often led to injuries.

Knattleik appears to have been played only in Iceland, where it attracted many spectators, as did horse fighting.

Hunting, as a sport, was limited to Denmark, where it was not regarded as an important occupation. Birds, deer , hares and foxes were hunted with bow and spear, and later with crossbows.

The techniques were stalking, snare and traps and par force hunting with dog packs. Both archaeological finds and written sources testify to the fact that the Vikings set aside time for social and festive gatherings.

Board games and dice games were played as a popular pastime at all levels of society. Preserved gaming pieces and boards show game boards made of easily available materials like wood, with game pieces manufactured from stone, wood or bone, while other finds include elaborately carved boards and game pieces of glass, amber , antler or walrus tusk, together with materials of foreign origin, such as ivory.

The Vikings played several types of tafl games; hnefatafl , nitavl Nine Men's Morris and the less common kvatrutafl. Chess also appeared at the end of the Viking Age.

Hnefatafl is a war game, in which the object is to capture the king piece—a large hostile army threatens and the king's men have to protect the king.

It was played on a board with squares using black and white pieces, with moves made according to dice rolls. The Ockelbo Runestone shows two men engaged in Hnefatafl, and the sagas suggest that money or valuables could have been involved in some dice games.

On festive occasions storytelling , skaldic poetry , music and alcoholic drinks, like beer and mead , contributed to the atmosphere.

The Vikings are known to have played instruments including harps , fiddles , lyres and lutes. Viking-age reenactors have undertaken experimental activities such as iron smelting and forging using Norse techniques at Norstead in Newfoundland for example.

The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during a excavation in the Roskilde Fjord. Tree-ring analysis has shown the ship was built of oak in the vicinity of Dublin in about Seventy multi-national crew members sailed the ship back to its home, and Sea Stallion arrived outside Dublin's Custom House on 14 August The purpose of the voyage was to test and document the seaworthiness, speed, and manoeuvrability of the ship on the rough open sea and in coastal waters with treacherous currents.

The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society.

The ship was built using Viking tools, materials, and much the same methods as the original ship. Other vessels, often replicas of the Gokstad ship full- or half-scale or Skuldelev I have been built and tested as well.

Knowledge about the arms and armour of the Viking age is based on archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century.

According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons and were permitted to carry them at all times.

These arms were indicative of a Viking's social status: However, swords were rarely used in battle, probably not sturdy enough for combat and most likely only used as symbolic or decorative items.

Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea, but they tended to be considered less "honourable" than melee weapons.

Vikings were relatively unusual for the time in their use of axes as a main battle weapon. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religion , focusing on Thor and Odin , the gods of war and death.

Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria , [] or large amounts of alcohol.

The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia not the least.

Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy.

Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.

A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled. Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products.

The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants.

To counter these valuable imports, the Vikings exported a large variety of goods. Other exports included weapons, walrus ivory , wax , salt and cod.

As one of the more exotic exports, hunting birds were sometimes provided from Norway to the European aristocracy, from the 10th century.

Many of these goods were also traded within the Viking world itself, as well as goods such as soapstone and whetstone.

Soapstone was traded with the Norse on Iceland and in Jutland , who used it for pottery. Whetstones were traded and used for sharpening weapons, tools and knives.

This trade satisfied the Vikings' need for leather and meat to some extent, and perhaps hides for parchment production on the European mainland.

Wool was also very important as a domestic product for the Vikings, to produce warm clothing for the cold Scandinavian and Nordic climate, and for sails.

Sails for Viking ships required large amounts of wool, as evidenced by experimental archaeology. There are archaeological signs of organised textile productions in Scandinavia, reaching as far back as the early Iron Ages.

Artisans and craftsmen in the larger towns were supplied with antlers from organised hunting with large-scale reindeer traps in the far north.

They were used as raw material for making everyday utensils like combs. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne.

The devastation of Northumbria 's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal courts of Europe to the Viking presence.

Not until the s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.

Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes. Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.

The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.

Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.

Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.

These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king.

Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e. Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus Olaus Magnus, , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus in The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hicke, who published his Linguarum vett.

During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.

The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking. Geijer's poem did much to propagate the new romanticised ideal of the Viking, which had little basis in historical fact.

The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications. The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent.

Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.

In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism.

Pioneering 19th-century scholarly editions of the Viking Age began to reach a small readership in Britain, archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past, and linguistic enthusiasts started to identify the Viking-Age origins of rural idioms and proverbs.

The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas. Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.

The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.

In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.

The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of the Germanic master race.

The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.

Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.

Soviet and earlier Slavophile historians emphasized a Slavic rooted foundation in contrast to the Normanist theory of the Vikings conquering the Slavs and founding the Kievan Rus'.

They argued that Rus' composition was Slavic and that Rurik and Oleg' success was rooted in their support from within the local Slavic aristocracy.

These have included novels directly based on historical events, such as Frans Gunnar Bengtsson 's The Long Ships which was also released as a film , and historical fantasies such as the film The Vikings , Michael Crichton 's Eaters of the Dead movie version called The 13th Warrior , and the comedy film Erik the Viking.

Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.

Vikinger namen -

Die Anfänge der Skandinavien-Mission des jungen Ansgar dagegen fanden schon in den er Jahren statt. Die überlieferten Handelswege wurden in der Wikingerzeit genutzt. Auch weitere Angriffe werden, wenngleich mühsam, von den Verteidigern von Paris zurückgeschlagen, doch die Nahrungsmittel in der Stadt werden knapp. September um Wenn Du diese Webseite weiter nutzt, gehen wir von Deinem Einverständnis aus. Der nordische Name kommt ursprünglich aus dem Althochdeutschen und wird mit "ratgebender Krieger" übersetzt. However, when the contract arrived for them psg bayern live sign, a secretary had mistakenly translated their wetter el salvador from "the Vikings" to "Vikingarna". The longship allowed the Norse to go Vikingwhich might explain why this type of ship has become almost synonymous with the concept of Vikings. Borsch would later Beste Spielothek in Ibertsberg finden in interviews that he regretted leaving the band at that point, preise joyclub several times considered going back in the following years. It may derive from OW. National Museum of Denmark. The older, smaller stone was raised by King Gorm the Old casino poltringen, the last pagan king of Denmark, as a memorial honouring Queen Thyre. The first element System lotto gewinn or Iofur- comes from OW. Norse verb gefa "to give" book of the dead in ancient egypt Mma freiburg. The band would later become the first Scandinavian act to perform in the country. Found in Old Swedish as Botheidh example from Gotland. This name is the feminine form of masculine Arnfasti. Die männliche Form des Namens ist Gull. Dabei ist zu berücksichtigen, dass in der frühen Zeit des Raubhandels nicht überall eine strikte Trennung eurobasket 2019 deutschland diesen Betätigungen gegeben war. Diese bezogen sich auf Eigenschaften, konnten aber auch scherzhaft Gegenteiliges meinen. Er war lewandowski trikot polen ein beutegewohnter Kriegsmann [oder: Das Beste Spielothek in Oberbierenbach finden in eine Gefolgschaft wird mit 18 Jahren angesetzt. Hast Du Verbesserungsvorschläge, Kritik oder andere Anmerkungen? Überhaupt werden in den Quellen häufig unglaubhaft hohe Zahlen der Wikinger genannt: In Annalen und Chroniken wird die Bezeichnung Dänen dann bevorzugt, wenn von Beste Spielothek in Lancken finden Verhältnissen in Dänemark berichtet wird. Wie wichtig Beste Spielothek in Büren finden diese Rückzugsmöglichkeit war, geht aus ihrem Verhalten hervor, als sie selbst in Casino kiel belagert wurden. Die Sesshaftigkeit war Ergebnis der vorangegangenen Gewalt, nicht deren Ziel. Diese Website nutzt Cookies und ähnliche Technologien. Ragnar arthur abraham kampf 2019 mit Horik nach England auf, wo sie nach einem schweren Sturm an einer unbekannten Küste landen. Wie dies bei den Initiatoren und Teilnehmern privater Raubzüge aussah, ist damit noch nicht entschieden.

The Vikings were known as Ascomanni "ashmen" by the Germans for the ash wood of their boats, [28] Dubgail and Finngail "dark and fair foreigners" by the Irish, [29] Lochlannach "lake person" by the Gaels [30] and Dene Dane by the Anglo-Saxons.

Some archaeologists and historians of today believe that these Scandinavian settlements in the Slavic lands played a significant role in the formation of the Kievan Rus' federation, and hence the names and early states of Russia and Belarus.

The Slavs and the Byzantines also called them Varangians Russian: Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian Guard.

The Franks normally called them Northmen or Danes, while for the English they were generally known as Danes or heathen and the Irish knew them as pagans or gentiles.

Anglo-Scandinavian is an academic term referring to the people, and archaeological and historical periods during the 8th to 13th centuries in which there was migration to—and occupation of—the British Isles by Scandinavian peoples generally known in English as Vikings.

It is used in distinction from Anglo-Saxon. Similar terms exist for other areas, such as Hiberno-Norse for Ireland and Scotland. The period from the earliest recorded raids in the s until the Norman conquest of England in is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian history.

The Normans were descended from Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France—the Duchy of Normandy —in the 10th century.

In that respect, descendants of the Vikings continued to have an influence in northern Europe. Two Vikings even ascended to the throne of England, with Sweyn Forkbeard claiming the English throne in — and his son Cnut the Great becoming king of England — Geographically, a Viking Age may be assigned to not only Scandinavian lands modern Denmark, Norway and Sweden , but also territories under North Germanic dominance, mainly the Danelaw , including Scandinavian York , the administrative centre of the remains of the Kingdom of Northumbria , [43] parts of Mercia , and East Anglia.

As early as , when Swedish emissaries are first known to have visited Byzantium, Scandinavians served as mercenaries in the service of the Byzantine Empire.

Traditionally containing large numbers of Scandinavians, it was known as the Varangian Guard. The most eminent Scandinavian to serve in the Varangian Guard was Harald Hardrada , who subsequently established himself as king of Norway — There is archaeological evidence that Vikings reached Baghdad , the centre of the Islamic Empire.

Among the Swedish runestones mentioning expeditions overseas, almost half tell of raids and travels to western Europe.

According to the Icelandic sagas, many Norwegian Vikings also went to eastern Europe. In the Viking Age, the present day nations of Norway, Sweden and Denmark did not exist, but were largely homogeneous and similar in culture and language, although somewhat distinct geographically.

The names of Scandinavian kings are reliably known only for the later part of the Viking Age. After the end of the Viking Age the separate kingdoms gradually acquired distinct identities as nations, which went hand-in-hand with their Christianisation.

Thus the end of the Viking Age for the Scandinavians also marks the start of their relatively brief Middle Ages. Colonization of Iceland by Norwegian Vikings began in the ninth century.

The first source that Iceland and Greenland appear in is a papal letter of Twenty years later, they are then seen in the Gesta of Adam of Bremen.

It was not until after , when the islands had become Christianized, that accounts of the history of the islands were written from the point of view of the inhabitants in sagas and chronicles.

Later in their history, they began to settle in other lands. This expansion occurred during the Medieval Warm Period. Viking expansion into continental Europe was limited.

Their realm was bordered by powerful cultures to the south. The Saxons were a fierce and powerful people and were often in conflict with the Vikings.

To counter the Saxon aggression and solidify their own presence, the Danes constructed the huge defence fortification of Danevirke in and around Hedeby.

The Saxon defeat resulted in their forced christening and the absorption of Old Saxony into the Carolingian Empire.

Fear of the Franks led the Vikings to further expand Danevirke, and the defence constructions remained in use throughout the Viking Age and even up until The motives driving the Viking expansion are a topic of much debate in Nordic history.

One common theory posits that Charlemagne "used force and terror to Christianise all pagans", leading to baptism, conversion or execution, and as a result, Vikings and other pagans resisted and wanted revenge.

Another explanation is that the Vikings exploited a moment of weakness in the surrounding regions. England suffered from internal divisions and was relatively easy prey given the proximity of many towns to the sea or to navigable rivers.

Lack of organised naval opposition throughout Western Europe allowed Viking ships to travel freely, raiding or trading as opportunity permitted.

The decline in the profitability of old trade routes could also have played a role. Trade between western Europe and the rest of Eurasia suffered a severe blow when the Roman Empire fell in the 5th century.

Raids in Europe, including raids and settlements from Scandinavia, were not unprecedented and had occurred long before the Vikings arrived.

The Jutes invaded the British Isles three centuries earlier, pouring out from Jutland during the Age of Migrations , before the Danes settled there.

The Saxons and the Angles did the same, embarking from mainland Europe. The Viking raids were, however, the first to be documented in writing by eyewitnesses, and they were much larger in scale and frequency than in previous times.

Vikings themselves were expanding; although their motives are unclear, historians believe that scarce resources were a factor. The "Highway of Slaves" was a term used to describe a route that the Vikings found to have a direct pathway from Scandinavia to Constantinople and Baghdad while traveling on the Baltic Sea.

With the advancements of their ships during the ninth century, the Vikings were able to sail to Russia and some northern parts of Europe.

Jomsburg , was a semi-legendary Viking stronghold at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea medieval Wendland , modern Pomerania , that existed between the s and Its inhabitants were known as Jomsvikings.

Jomsborg's exact location, or its existence, has not yet been established, though it is often maintained that Jomsborg was somewhere on the islands of the Oder estuary.

During the Viking Age, Scandinavian men and women travelled to many parts of Europe and beyond, in a cultural diaspora that left its traces from Newfoundland to Byzantium.

This period of energetic activity also had a pronounced effect in the Scandinavian homelands, which were subject to a variety of new influences.

By the late 11th century, royal dynasties legitimised by the Catholic Church which had had little influence in Scandinavia years earlier were asserting their power with increasing authority and ambition, and the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden had taken shape.

Towns appeared that functioned as secular and ecclesiastical administrative centres and market sites, and monetary economies began to emerge based on English and German models.

Foreign churchmen and native elites were energetic in furthering the interests of Christianity, which was now no longer operating only on a missionary footing, and old ideologies and lifestyles were transforming.

By , the first archbishopric was founded in Scandinavia, at Lund , Scania, then part of Denmark. The assimilation of the nascent Scandinavian kingdoms into the cultural mainstream of European Christendom altered the aspirations of Scandinavian rulers and of Scandinavians able to travel overseas, and changed their relations with their neighbours.

One of the primary sources of profit for the Vikings had been slave-taking. The medieval Church held that Christians should not own fellow Christians as slaves, so chattel slavery diminished as a practice throughout northern Europe.

This took much of the economic incentive out of raiding, though sporadic slaving activity continued into the 11th century.

Scandinavian predation in Christian lands around the North and Irish Seas diminished markedly. The kings of Norway continued to assert power in parts of northern Britain and Ireland, and raids continued into the 12th century, but the military ambitions of Scandinavian rulers were now directed toward new paths.

In , Sigurd I of Norway sailed for the eastern Mediterranean with Norwegian crusaders to fight for the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem , and Danes and Swedes participated energetically in the Baltic Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries.

A variety of sources illuminate the culture, activities, and beliefs of the Vikings. Although they were generally a non-literate culture that produced no literary legacy, they had an alphabet and described themselves and their world on runestones.

Most contemporary literary and written sources on the Vikings come from other cultures that were in contact with them.

The most important primary sources on the Vikings are contemporary texts from Scandinavia and regions where the Vikings were active. Most contemporary documentary sources consist of texts written in Christian and Islamic communities outside Scandinavia, often by authors who had been negatively affected by Viking activity.

Later writings on the Vikings and the Viking Age can also be important for understanding them and their culture, although they need to be treated cautiously.

After the consolidation of the church and the assimilation of Scandinavia and its colonies into the mainstream of medieval Christian culture in the 11th and 12th centuries, native written sources begin to appear, in Latin and Old Norse.

In the Viking colony of Iceland, an extraordinary vernacular literature blossomed in the 12th through 14th centuries, and many traditions connected with the Viking Age were written down for the first time in the Icelandic sagas.

A literal interpretation of these medieval prose narratives about the Vikings and the Scandinavian past is doubtful, but many specific elements remain worthy of consideration, such as the great quantity of skaldic poetry attributed to court poets of the 10th and 11th centuries, the exposed family trees, the self images, the ethical values, all included in these literary writings.

Indirectly, the Vikings have also left a window open to their language, culture and activities, through many Old Norse place names and words, found in their former sphere of influence.

Viking influence is also evident in concepts like the present-day parliamentary body of the Tynwald on the Isle of Man.

Common words in everyday English language, like some of the weekdays Thursday means Thor's day , axle , crook , raft , knife , plough , leather , window , berserk , bylaw , thorp , skerry , husband , heathen , Hell , Norman and ransack stem from the Old Norse of the Vikings and give us an opportunity to understand their interactions with the people and cultures of the British Isles.

Some modern words and names only emerge and contribute to our understanding after a more intense research of linguistic sources from medieval or later records, such as York Horse Bay , Swansea Sveinn 's Isle or some of the place names in Northern France like Tocqueville Toki's farm.

Linguistic and etymological studies continue to provide a vital source of information on the Viking culture, their social structure and history and how they interacted with the people and cultures they met, traded, attacked or lived with in overseas settlements.

It has been speculated that the reason was the great differences between the two languages, combined with the Rus' Vikings more peaceful businesses in these areas and the fact that they were outnumbered.

The Norse named some of the rapids on the Dnieper , but this can hardly be seen from the modern names. A consequence of the available written sources, which may have coloured how the Viking age is perceived as a historical period, is that much more is known of the Vikings' activities in western Europe than in the East.

One reason is that the cultures of north-eastern Europe at the time were non-literate, and did not produce a legacy of literature.

Another is that the vast majority of written sources on Scandinavia in the Viking Age come from Iceland, a nation originally settled by Norwegian colonists.

As a result, there is much more material from the Viking Age about Norway than Sweden, which apart from many runic inscriptions, has almost no written sources from the early Middle Ages.

The Norse of the Viking Age could read and write and used a non-standardised alphabet, called runor , built upon sound values.

While there are few remains of runic writing on paper from the Viking era, thousands of stones with runic inscriptions have been found where Vikings lived.

They are usually in memory of the dead, though not necessarily placed at graves. The use of runor survived into the 15th century, used in parallel with the Latin alphabet.

The majority of runic inscriptions from the Viking period are found in Sweden and date from the 11th century. The oldest stone with runic inscriptions was found in Norway and dates to the 4th century, suggesting that runic inscriptions pre-date the Viking period.

Many runestones in Scandinavia record the names of participants in Viking expeditions, such as the Kjula runestone that tells of extensive warfare in Western Europe and the Turinge Runestone , which tells of a war band in Eastern Europe.

Other runestones mention men who died on Viking expeditions. Among them are around 25 Ingvar runestones in the Mälardalen district of Sweden, erected to commemorate members of a disastrous expedition into present-day Russia in the early 11th century.

Runestones are important sources in the study of Norse society and early medieval Scandinavia, not only of the Viking segment of the population.

The Jelling stones date from between and The older, smaller stone was raised by King Gorm the Old , the last pagan king of Denmark, as a memorial honouring Queen Thyre.

It has three sides: Runestones attest to voyages to locations such as Bath , [95] Greece, [96] Khwaresm , [97] Jerusalem , [98] Italy as Langobardland , [99] Serkland i.

Viking Age inscriptions have also been discovered on the Manx runestones on the Isle of Man. The burial practices of the Vikings were quite varied, from dug graves in the ground, to tumuli , sometimes including so-called ship burials.

According to written sources, most of the funerals took place at sea. The funerals involved either burial or cremation , depending on local customs.

In the area that is now Sweden, cremations were predominant; in Denmark burial was more common; and in Norway both were common. There have been several archaeological finds of Viking ships of all sizes, providing knowledge of the craftsmanship that went into building them.

There were many types of Viking ships, built for various uses; the best-known type is probably the longship.

The longship had a long, narrow hull and shallow draught to facilitate landings and troop deployments in shallow water.

Longships were used extensively by the Leidang , the Scandinavian defence fleets. The longship allowed the Norse to go Viking , which might explain why this type of ship has become almost synonymous with the concept of Vikings.

The Vikings built many unique types of watercraft, often used for more peaceful tasks. The knarr was a dedicated merchant vessel designed to carry cargo in bulk.

It had a broader hull, deeper draught, and a small number of oars used primarily to manoeuvre in harbours and similar situations.

One Viking innovation was the ' beitass ', a spar mounted to the sail that allowed their ships to sail effectively against the wind. Ships were an integral part of the Viking culture.

They facilitated everyday transportation across seas and waterways, exploration of new lands, raids, conquests, and trade with neighbouring cultures.

They also held a major religious importance. People with high status were sometimes buried in a ship along with animal sacrifices, weapons, provisions and other items, as evidenced by the buried vessels at Gokstad and Oseberg in Norway [] and the excavated ship burial at Ladby in Denmark.

Ship burials were also practised by Vikings abroad, as evidenced by the excavations of the Salme ships on the Estonian island of Saaremaa.

Well-preserved remains of five Viking ships were excavated from Roskilde Fjord in the late s, representing both the longship and the knarr.

The ships were scuttled there in the 11th century to block a navigation channel and thus protect Roskilde , then the Danish capital, from seaborne assault.

The remains of these ships are on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. The Viking society was divided into the three socio-economic classes: Thralls, Karls and Jarls.

Archaeology has confirmed this social structure. Thralls were the lowest ranking class and were slaves.

Slaves comprised as much as a quarter of the population. Thralls were servants and workers in the farms and larger households of the Karls and Jarls, and they were used for constructing fortifications, ramps, canals, mounds, roads and similar hard work projects.

According to the Rigsthula, Thralls were despised and looked down upon. New thralls were supplied by either the sons and daughters of thralls or they were captured abroad.

The Vikings often deliberately captured many people on their raids in Europe, to enslave them as thralls. The thralls were then brought back home to Scandinavia by boat, used on location or in newer settlements to build needed structures, or sold, often to the Arabs in exchange for silver.

Karls were free peasants. They owned farms, land and cattle and engaged in daily chores like ploughing the fields, milking the cattle, building houses and wagons, but used thralls to make ends meet.

Other names for Karls were 'bonde' or simply free men. The Jarls were the aristocracy of the Viking society.

They were wealthy and owned large estates with huge longhouses, horses and many thralls. The thralls did most of the daily chores, while the Jarls did administration, politics, hunting, sports, visited other Jarls or were abroad on expeditions.

When a Jarl died and was buried, his household thralls were sometimes sacrificially killed and buried next to him, as many excavations have revealed.

In daily life, there were many intermediate positions in the overall social structure and it is believed that there must have been some social mobility.

These details are unclear, but titles and positions like hauldr , thegn , landmand , show mobility between the Karls and the Jarls.

Members of the latter were referred to as drenge , one of the words for warrior. There were also official communities within towns and villages, the overall defence, religion, the legal system and the Things.

Such a woman was referred to as Baugrygr , and she exercised all the rights afforded to the head of a family clan — such as the right to demand and receive fines for the slaughter of a family member — until she married, by which her rights were transferred to her new husband.

A married woman could divorce her husband and remarry. These liberties gradually disappeared after the introduction of Christianity, and from the late 13th-century, they are no longer mentioned.

The three classes were easily recognisable by their appearances. Men and women of the Jarls were well groomed with neat hairstyles and expressed their wealth and status by wearing expensive clothes often silk and well crafted jewellery like brooches , belt buckles, necklaces and arm rings.

Almost all of the jewellery was crafted in specific designs unique to the Norse see Viking art. Finger rings were seldom used and earrings were not used at all, as they were seen as a Slavic phenomenon.

Most Karls expressed similar tastes and hygiene, but in a more relaxed and inexpensive way. The sagas tell about the diet and cuisine of the Vikings, [] but first hand evidence, like cesspits , kitchen middens and garbage dumps have proved to be of great value and importance.

Undigested remains of plants from cesspits at Coppergate in York have provided much information in this respect.

Overall, archaeo-botanical investigations have been undertaken increasingly in recent decades, as a collaboration between archaeologists and palaeoethno-botanists.

This new approach sheds light on the agricultural and horticultural practices of the Vikings and their cuisine. The combined information from various sources suggests a diverse cuisine and ingredients.

Meat products of all kinds, such as cured , smoked and whey -preserved meat, [] sausages, and boiled or fried fresh meat cuts, were prepared and consumed.

Certain livestock were typical and unique to the Vikings, including the Icelandic horse , Icelandic cattle , a plethora of sheep breeds, [] the Danish hen and the Danish goose.

Most of the beef and horse leg bones were found split lengthways, to extract the marrow. The mutton and swine were cut into leg and shoulder joints and chops.

The frequent remains of pig skull and foot bones found on house floors indicate that brawn and trotters were also popular. Hens were kept for both their meat and eggs, and the bones of game birds such as black grouse , golden plover , wild ducks, and geese have also been found.

Seafood was important, in some places even more so than meat. Whales and walrus were hunted for food in Norway and the north-western parts of the North Atlantic region, and seals were hunted nearly everywhere.

Oysters , mussels and shrimps were eaten in large quantities and cod and salmon were popular fish. In the southern regions, herring was also important.

Milk and buttermilk were popular, both as cooking ingredients and drinks, but were not always available, even at farms. Food was often salted and enhanced with spices, some of which were imported like black pepper , while others were cultivated in herb gardens or harvested in the wild.

Home grown spices included caraway , mustard and horseradish as evidenced from the Oseberg ship burial [] or dill , coriander , and wild celery , as found in cesspits at Coppergate in York.

Thyme , juniper berry , sweet gale , yarrow , rue and peppercress were also used and cultivated in herb gardens.

Vikings collected and ate fruits, berries and nuts. Apple wild crab apples , plums and cherries were part of the diet, [] as were rose hips and raspberry , wild strawberry , blackberry , elderberry , rowan , hawthorn and various wild berries, specific to the locations.

The shells were used for dyeing, and it is assumed that the nuts were consumed. The invention and introduction of the mouldboard plough revolutionised agriculture in Scandinavia in the early Viking Age and made it possible to farm even poor soils.

In Ribe , grains of rye , barley , oat and wheat dated to the 8th century have been found and examined, and are believed to have been cultivated locally.

Remains of bread from primarily Birka in Sweden were made of barley and wheat. It is unclear if the Norse leavened their breads, but their ovens and baking utensils suggest that they did.

This suggests a much higher actual percentage, as linen is poorly preserved compared to wool for example. The quality of food for common people was not always particularly high.

The research at Coppergate shows that the Vikings in York made bread from whole meal flour — probably both wheat and rye — but with the seeds of cornfield weeds included.

Corncockle Agrostemma , would have made the bread dark-coloured, but the seeds are poisonous, and people who ate the bread might have become ill.

Seeds of carrots, parsnip , and brassicas were also discovered, but they were poor specimens and tend to come from white carrots and bitter tasting cabbages.

The effects of this can be seen on skeletal remains of that period. Sports were widely practised and encouraged by the Vikings.

This included spear and stone throwing, building and testing physical strength through wrestling see glima , fist fighting , and stone lifting.

In areas with mountains, mountain climbing was practised as a sport. Agility and balance were built and tested by running and jumping for sport, and there is mention of a sport that involved jumping from oar to oar on the outside of a ship's railing as it was being rowed.

Swimming was a popular sport and Snorri Sturluson describes three types: Children often participated in some of the sport disciplines and women have also been mentioned as swimmers, although it is unclear if they took part in competition.

King Olaf Tryggvason was hailed as a master of both mountain climbing and oar-jumping, and was said to have excelled in the art of knife juggling as well.

Skiing and ice skating were the primary winter sports of the Vikings, although skiing was also used as everyday means of transport in winter and in the colder regions of the north.

Horse fighting was practised for sport, although the rules are unclear. It appears to have involved two stallions pitted against each other, within smell and sight of fenced-off mares.

Whatever the rules were, the fights often resulted in the death of one of the stallions. Icelandic sources refer to the sport of knattleik.

A ball game akin to hockey , knattleik involved a bat and a small hard ball and was usually played on a smooth field of ice.

The rules are unclear, but it was popular with both adults and children, even though it often led to injuries.

Knattleik appears to have been played only in Iceland, where it attracted many spectators, as did horse fighting. Hunting, as a sport, was limited to Denmark, where it was not regarded as an important occupation.

Birds, deer , hares and foxes were hunted with bow and spear, and later with crossbows. The techniques were stalking, snare and traps and par force hunting with dog packs.

Both archaeological finds and written sources testify to the fact that the Vikings set aside time for social and festive gatherings.

Board games and dice games were played as a popular pastime at all levels of society. Preserved gaming pieces and boards show game boards made of easily available materials like wood, with game pieces manufactured from stone, wood or bone, while other finds include elaborately carved boards and game pieces of glass, amber , antler or walrus tusk, together with materials of foreign origin, such as ivory.

The Vikings played several types of tafl games; hnefatafl , nitavl Nine Men's Morris and the less common kvatrutafl.

Chess also appeared at the end of the Viking Age. Hnefatafl is a war game, in which the object is to capture the king piece—a large hostile army threatens and the king's men have to protect the king.

It was played on a board with squares using black and white pieces, with moves made according to dice rolls. The Ockelbo Runestone shows two men engaged in Hnefatafl, and the sagas suggest that money or valuables could have been involved in some dice games.

On festive occasions storytelling , skaldic poetry , music and alcoholic drinks, like beer and mead , contributed to the atmosphere.

The Vikings are known to have played instruments including harps , fiddles , lyres and lutes. Viking-age reenactors have undertaken experimental activities such as iron smelting and forging using Norse techniques at Norstead in Newfoundland for example.

The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during a excavation in the Roskilde Fjord. Tree-ring analysis has shown the ship was built of oak in the vicinity of Dublin in about Seventy multi-national crew members sailed the ship back to its home, and Sea Stallion arrived outside Dublin's Custom House on 14 August The purpose of the voyage was to test and document the seaworthiness, speed, and manoeuvrability of the ship on the rough open sea and in coastal waters with treacherous currents.

The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society.

The ship was built using Viking tools, materials, and much the same methods as the original ship. Other vessels, often replicas of the Gokstad ship full- or half-scale or Skuldelev I have been built and tested as well.

Knowledge about the arms and armour of the Viking age is based on archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century.

According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons and were permitted to carry them at all times. These arms were indicative of a Viking's social status: However, swords were rarely used in battle, probably not sturdy enough for combat and most likely only used as symbolic or decorative items.

Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea, but they tended to be considered less "honourable" than melee weapons.

Vikings were relatively unusual for the time in their use of axes as a main battle weapon. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religion , focusing on Thor and Odin , the gods of war and death.

Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria , [] or large amounts of alcohol.

The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia not the least.

Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy.

Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.

A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled.

Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products. The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants.

To counter these valuable imports, the Vikings exported a large variety of goods. Other exports included weapons, walrus ivory , wax , salt and cod.

As one of the more exotic exports, hunting birds were sometimes provided from Norway to the European aristocracy, from the 10th century. Many of these goods were also traded within the Viking world itself, as well as goods such as soapstone and whetstone.

Soapstone was traded with the Norse on Iceland and in Jutland , who used it for pottery. For the second element -bjorg or -borg see above.

Norse as Ingibjorg or Ingibiorg. Runic examples include the nominative forms inkiber, inkiberh, inki: The name Ingibjorg appears in the legendary saga Orvar-Odds saga , c.

This name appears as well in the legendary saga Egils saga einhenda og Asmundar saga berserkjabana , c.

A short form of names in Ingi- is Inga. A short form of Ingibjorg is Imba. Occurs in the runic nominative form inkiu.

Found fairly frequently in Danish for example in the Latinized form Ingifridis as well as in Swedish. Occurs in the runic accusative form as inkikuni.

Runic examples include the nominative forms ikilauh and ikiluk. Ingilaug, Ing in -, -laug Ingileif For the first element Ingi- see above.

Runic examples include the nominative forms [ikilaif], ikilef, [iku]lef. A few instances of this name are recorded in Iceland, and it is common in Norway from the 's onward.

It is found in Sweden as well, but not in Denmark. An Anglo-Scandinavian form may be found in the Latinized Ingolieva c. Found in Old Swedish as Ingerun.

Runic examples include the nominative forms ikirun, [ikirun], [iskirun] and the genitive form [iki]runaR. The second element in these names seems to be from vald , "might, power".

Runic examples include the nominative case iofast and accusative case iofastu. For the second element -fast or -fost see above. Occurs in the runic accusative form [in]orilt-.

May be represented in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Joril, Jorild c. Runic examples include the nominative forms iaurun, iurun, - u r u n , the genitive form [io]runa and the accusative forms iuruni, in u r un in.

Runic examples include the nominative form kata and the accusative form katu. Katla See -katla , above. Found in Old Danish as Ketilelf. Occurs in the runic nominative form kitelfR.

Runic examples include nominative case katily, ketilau, [ketilau], [ketilu], [kitilau] and genitive case ketilyaR. For the second element -laug or the weak side-form -lauga see above.

Occurs in the runic nominative form kitiluha. Found as a nickname. A short form of feminine names in Kol- is Kolla. Kolla Kolfinna For the first element Kol- see above.

Kolla Kolfrosta For the first element Kol- see above. The second element -frost is related to Old Icelandic frost , "frost".

Kolla Kolla Found in OW. Norse as the by-name Kolla, for which the etymology is uncertain but which may be related to OW.

Norse kolla "female, woman". Kolla is also found as a short form of feminine names in Kol-. If it is a valid name, it may be related to Old Icelandic krafla , "to paw or scrabble with the hands", an infant's nickname.

This is also the name of an Icelandic volcano. Occurs in the runic nominative form kr e stin. Found in Denmark as Langliva from c.

May be represented in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Langliuetorp c. Also related to the giantess' name Leikn, which was also used to mean "she-troll, ogress, sorceress".

Found in the runic genitive form liknuiaR. May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian name Linild c. For the second element -unn see above.

Found as a woman's name in western Iceland. The second element -vina is identical to Old Icelandic vinr , "friend".

The name is akin to modern English "love". Norse magn "might, main, strength, power" or OW. These names appear to come from Germany.

Found in the runic genitive form [ma h niltar]. It is uncertain whether this is a masculine name or a feminine name. The first element, Mal- , is the Celtic word for "servant".

The second element is perhaps the genitive case of a Celtic name, Lomchu. Occurs in the runic nominative form mal: The second element is the Celtic genitive-case form possessive of Maria.

Occurs in the runic accusative form mal: The word is also used as a common noun meaning "mermaid". A short form of this name in Old Norse is Manga. Names in Mun- are related to OW.

Norse munr "mind, will. Norse mund "hand; protection. The first element Mun- appears only in the masculine name MunulfR. May occur in the runic nominative form [munkir].

Appears in the runic accusative form murkialu. IV, oddr Oddleif For the first element Odd see above. May occur in the runic accusative form [oloh].

Runic examples include the nominative form [ulef] and the accusative forms olaif, [ulaif]. Runic examples include the nominative forms olauf, [olauf], uluf , the genitive forms auluafaR, ulaufR and the accusative forms olaf, [oloh], oluf, ulafu.

Appears in the runic nominative form [utaRa]. Otkatla See -katla , above. Runic examples include the nominative forms ragna, rakn, rakna, [rana].

Ragna appears in Orkneyingasaga c. Norse rogn, regin n. As a personal name element this word has the Germanic sense of "rede, counsel, decision", but in Scandinavia acquired a secondary meaning with the religious interpretation.

Occurs in the runic nominative form r-knburk. The name Ragnhildr is common in Norway from the 's onwards and is occasionally found in Iceland as well.

The form Ragnhilda is common in Norway in the 's. Frequently found in Sweden. Runic examples include the nominative forms rahniltr, rahn[ilt]r, raknhiltr and the genitive form rag[niltaR].

May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Ragenilda c. A short form of Ragnhildr is Ranka. Found in Old Swedish as Ragnvi.

Occurs in the runic accusative form ragnui. Norse as Rannveig, Rognveig. Runic examples are found in the nominative forms ranuaik, ranuauk and ronuig.

Occurs in the runic nominative form rahnuor. Oslo, Uppsala and Kobenhavn: Runic examples include the nominative forms ranti, ronti and the accusative forms rantui, [rantui].

A single instance of this is found as a by-name in West Scandinavia in the 's. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian name Rikelot May occur in the runic nominative form rikui.

This name also is found in a runic inscription in the nominative form rota. Norse for a mythological character. Runic examples include the nominative forms runa, [runa], runo and the accusative form runu.

Occurs in the runic nominative form santau. The origin of the initial S-sound is perhaps from children's speech.

Runic examples include the nominative form sifa and the genitive form sifuR. Occurs in the runic genitive form sibu. A runic example occurs in the genitive case as s in -u.

Occurs in the runic nominative form sigbiurg. A short form of Sigbjorg is Sibba. A few instances of this name are found in Norway and it appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Sige pre , Sigga pre to Occurs in the runic genitive form shunar.

Occurs in the runic nominative forms sihlauh and siklaug. Found in the runic nominative form sikni.

A short form for women's names in Sig- is Sigga. This name was very common in Norway and Iceland through the whole medieval period.

Also common in Sweden and frequent in Denmark. Anglo-Scandinavian forms may include Sigreth , Sirid , Sigherith c. Occurs in the runic nominative form sirun and the accusative form sikrun.

Found in the runic genitive case form shunar. Occurs in the runic nominative form sikuik. Occurs in the runic genitive form skuaraR.

This first element does not appear to originate as a Scandinavian name element, but rather is an import from either OH.

Occurs in the runic nominative form [skirlauh]. The first element Skjald- is identical with Old Icelandic skjold , genitive skjaldar , "shield.

A number of instances of this name are recorded in Norway. May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Scelduuare, Seldwar c. Occurs in the runic nominative form sniolauk.

From her name a woman or a man who is a wise person is called snotr ". The name Snotra also appears in the legendary saga Gautreks saga , c. Found in the runic genitive form saufaraR.

The first element Stafn- is related to Old Icelandic stafn , "the stem of a ship, prow". Occurs in the runic accusative form steinu.

Found in Old Swedish as Stenhild. Runic examples include the nominative case forms steniltr, stineltr, stniltr. Occurs in the runic nominative form steinlauk.

This name is common in both Norway and in Iceland, often in the form Steinor. Norse stynr "groan" is not well-known except in this name and in the masculine name Stynbjorn.

Legend has it that this was the name of an Irish Christian queen who fled to Norway, where she died.

The name is common in Norway in the 's. The name is found, but very infrequently, in Iceland, Sweden, and Denmark.

May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian name Swale Found as a woman's proper name in Bandamanna saga.

Norse sveinn "youth, young person, young man. It is possibly identical with the Old Icelandic sylgja , "brooch". A related term corresponding to this name element seems not to exist in Continental Germanic but is common in Old English.

Frequent in both Old Danish and Old Swedish. Runic examples include the nominative forms tufa, tuf a , t ufa, [tufa] and the accusative forms tufu, [tofu].

Runic examples include the nominative case [tuka] and the accusative case toku. Norse as a fictional character, Tolla. This usually occurs as an East Scandinavian name, and is found frequently in Danish.

Runic examples include the nominative forms tola, tula, [tula], [tul a ]. Also found as an Anglo-Scandinavian name ca. Runic examples include the nominative form tuna and the accusative forms [ t on o ], ton u.

Occurs in the runic nominative forms [tora] and tura. Perhaps related to Old Icelandic torf , "turf, sod". Occurs in the runic nominative form [olfil] r.

Norse as Una, Unna. The runic examples should be interpreted as Una, from the OW. Norse verb una "to enjoy, be happy with, be content".

Runic examples include the nominative form una and the accusative form unu. A correspondence to this name element seems not to exist in the Germanic languages.

Runic examples include the nominative form untrlauh and the genitive form utrlaukar. Undrlaug, -laug Unnr Found in OW.

This would, if correct, have to be a Norse understanding and rendering of an Algonquin or Beothuk name.

Runic examples include the nominative forms uibug, uiburk and the accusative forms uiborg, uibruk. Occurs in the runic nominative form uerun.

The second element -hildr appears frequently in women's names, sometimes without the aspirate h see above. Common in both Norway and in Iceland from the earliest times onward, also frequent in Swedish and Danish.

The second element -arna is either from arinn , "hearth" or more likely from arin , related to Old Icelandic orn , "eagle". A few instances are recorded in Norway, one in the s, and the name is frequent in Iceland, though it is not found in East Scandinavia.

Occurs as a Scandinavian name in England. The second element -halla is identical to Old Icelandic hallr , "flat stone, big stone, boulder".

It is also found in Sweden and Denmark. Possibly present in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Durildewell c. See -katla , above. Several insteances of this name are found in Iceland, but after the s the name does not appear in Norway again until the s.

The second element -odda is identical to Old Icelandic oddr , "point, weapon-point, spear-point, arrow-point. This name is extremely common in Denmark from early times onward, including in the runic inscription turui.

Also found in West Scandinavia. Occurs in the runic nominative form [turno]. The first element Alf- is identical with Old Icelandic alfr , "elf.

This name is of uncertain etymology. For the first element Alf- see above. Al f hildr, Alf-, -hildr. The first element may perhaps be from Alf- see above or from Al- see above.

For the first element Al- see above. For the first element Arn- see above. The feminine or masculine name Auga is related to the OW.

The first element Baug- is identical to Old Icelandic baugr , a ring or armlet, particularly the sacred temple ring upon which oaths were made.

From the root ber , "bear" found also in berserkr. The first element Berg- is identical to the Norwegian dialect term berg , "protection, help. For the first element Berg- see above.

Diminuitive form with the -l- second element of the OW. The first element Bjarg- may derive from Old Icelandic bjarga , "to save, to help", or it may instead be related to Old Icelandic bjarg , "rocks, precipices".

Short form of the OW. Short form of feminine names in Borg- or -borg. For the first element Borg- see above.

The first element Bryn- before a vowel Brynj- is identical with Old Icelandic brynja , "corselet, mail-coat, byrnie. For the first element Bryn- see above.

The first element Dag- is identical to Old Icelandic dagr , "day". For the first element Dag- see above. The first element Eir- may be related to Old Icelandic eir , "peace, clemency".

Ellisif is the Nordicized version of the Russian name Elisaveta, the daughter of Jaroslav who married Norwegian king Haraldr hardrada.

This name may possibly be related to Old Norse esja , a kind of clay. For the first element Ey- see above. The first element Fast- is related to Old Icelandic fastr , "firm, fast".

For the first element Fast- see above. Compare to the OW. The first element Fjor- may perhaps be related to Old Icelandic fjor , "life, vitality".

The name Fjotra appears in the legendary saga Gautreks saga , c. Short form of feminine names in Folk-. The first element Folk- is from OW.

This name appears in Orkneyingasaga c. For the first element Frey- see above. A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation. The byname gautr was originally a Swedish name element, meaning "Goth, man from Gautland, Gotlander.

The feminine form of the name element Geir- , which is identical to the Old Icelandic geirr , "spear. For the first element Geir- see above.

Found as Old Swedish Gilla. The first element Ginn- is of uncertain etymology. For the first element Ginn- see above.

Found in Old Danish as Gisla. For the first element Gjaf- see above. For the first element Gull- see above. A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation c.

Gunnhildr, Gunn-, -hildr, Gunna. Gunnvor, Gunn-, -vor, Gunna. A short form of feminine names in Gunn-. The first element Haf- is identical with Old Icelandic haf , "sea".

Identical with Old Icelandic hallr , "flat stone, slab, big stone, boulder". For the first element Hall- see above.

For the first element Her see above. For the first element Hildi- see above. See Hildi- , above.

Originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic hjolp , "help". The first element Hjor- is identical to Old Icelandic hjorr , "a sword".

The name Hjotra appears in the legendary saga Gautreks saga , c. Short form of feminine names in Holm-. For the first element Holm- see above.

The first element Hrafn- is identical with Old Icelandic hrafn , "raven". From Old Icelandic Huld , the name of a giantess, related to hulda , "hiding, secrecy".

A short form of names in Ing-, Ingi-. Inga, Ing in -. For the first element Ingi- see above. Ingi , valda , voldugr. The first element Jofur- or Iofur- comes from OW.

For the first element Jofur- or Iofur- see above. Possibly an Anglo-Scandinavian formation. The first element in these names comes from Old Icelandic kjolr , genitive kjalar , "keel", a term also used of the mountains that divide Norway from Sweden, and for the spine of a book.

The first element Kol- is identical with Old Icelandic kol , "coals, black as coal". For the first element Kol- see above.

While Geirr Bassi reports this as a woman's name, I've been unable to find other documentation contining this as a name. Christian name, a Norse form of Latin Christina.

Originally a nickname, "long-life". This name is related to the Old Icelandic word leika , "to play, sport; to delude, trick", also used in phrases such as "to be hag-ridden" in the sense of nightmares.

A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian construction. The first element Lofn- is used as the name of the goddess Lofn, one of Frigga's handmaidens, known as the goddess of love.

Mardoll appears in the Eddas as one of the names of the goddess Freyja. Christian name compounded from Matt- and -hildr. Identical with Old Icelandic mjoll , "fresh, powdery snow".

The first element in this name is either Mun- or Mund-: The first element Odd- is identical with Old Icelandic oddr , "point, weapon-point, spear-point, arrow-point.

For the first element Odd see above. The first element Ol- is identical with Old Icelandic ol , "ale". For the first element Ol- see above. The first element Orm- is identical with Old Icelandic ormr , "serpent, snake, dragon.

Probably originally a by-name. A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian construction, possibly present in the Anglo-Scandinavian palce-name Rathildayle c.

For the first element Rafn- see above. A short form of feminine names in Ragn-. For the first element Ragn- see above. The first element Rand- is from OW.

The first element Rann- is identical to Old Icelandic rann , "house" related to the root in modern English ransack, "house-search".

The first element Regin- is identical to Old Icelandic regin , "ruling powers, the gods. Originally a by-name meaning "the proud one". The first element Sal- is identical with Old Icelandic salr , "hall, house".

For the first element Sal- see above. The first element Sand- is from OW. Sibba is a short form of the name Sigbjorg, Sigbiorg.

Probably originally a by-name, this name is derived from OW. The first element Sig- comes from OW.

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